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SparkNotes: U.S. Government and Politics Glossary: Glossary of Terms in U.S. Government & Politics complaint definition civics

grant of power -  Declaring that a certain person or group has a specific power. grassroots activism -  Efforts to influence the government by mobilizing large numbers of people. Great Compromise -  The compromise plan on representation in the constitutional convention; it created a bicameral l ckxudyqn. moncler jackets nordstromegislature with representation determined by population in one house and equality in the other; also known as the Connecticut Compromise. gross domestic product -  The total value of all economic transactions within a state. guerrilla war -  A war in which one or both combatants use small, lightly armed militia units rather than professional, organized armies; guerrilla fighters usually seek to topple their government, often enjoying the support of the people. gun control -  Policies that aim at regulating and reducing the use of firearms. Hatch Act -  A law passed in 1939 that restricts the participation of federal civil servants in political campaigns. hierarchy -  An arrangement of power with a small number of people at the top issuing orders through a chain of command to lower-level workers; each person is responsible to someone above him or her. home rule -  The granting of significant autonomy to local governments by state governments. home style -  The way a member of Congress behaves in his or her district. honeymoon period -  The first few months of an administration in which the public, members of Congress, and the media tend to give the president their goodwill. horizontal federalism -  How state governments relate to one another. hyperpluralism -  The idea that there are too many interest groups competing for benefits. idealism -  The view that states should act in the global arena to promote moral causes and use ethical means to achieve them. ideology -  A set of beliefs a person holds that shape the way he or she behaves and sees the world. illegal participation -  Political activity that includes illegal actions, such as sabotage or assassination. impeachment -  The power of the House of Representatives to charge an officeholder with crimes; the Senate then holds a trial to determine if the officeholder should be expelled from office. implementation -  The act of putting laws into practice. implied powers -  Powers given to the national government by the necessary and proper clause. income distribution -  The way income is distributed among the population. income transfer -  A government action that takes money from one part of the citizenry and gives it to another part; usually the transfer goes from the well-off to the poor. incorporation -  The practice of federal courts forcing state governments to abide by the Bill of Rights. incrementalism -  The tendency of policy in the United States to change gradually, in small ways, rather than dramatically. independent -  A person who does not feel affiliation for any party. independent executive agency -  A federal agency that is not part of any department; its leader reports directly to the president. independent regulatory agency -  A federal agency charged with regulating some part of the economy; in theory, such agencies are independent of Congress and the president. individualism -  The idea that all people are different and should be able to make their own choices. inflation -  The increase of prices. informational benefits -  The educational benefits people derive from belonging to an interest group and learning more about the issues they care about. inherent powers -  The powers inherent to the national government because the United States is a sovereign nation. in-kind subsidies -  Government aid to poor people that is not given as cash but in forms such as food stamps and rent vouchers. inside game -  Interest groups’ efforts to influence government by direct and close contact with government officials; also known as lobbying. interest group -  An organization of people who share a common interest and work together to protect and promote that interest by influencing the government. international agreement -  An understanding between states to restrict their behavior and set up rules governing international affairs. internationalism -  The view that the United States should play an active role in world affairs. international law -  A set of agreements, traditions, and norms built up over time that restricts what states can do; not always binding. international organization -  An institution set up by agreements between nations, such as the United Nations and the World Trade Organization. international system -  The basic structures that affect how states relate to one another, including rules and traditions. Internet media -  Media that is distributed online. interpretive reporting -  Reporting that states the facts along with analysis and interpretation. intervention -  When a state sends military forces to help a country that is already at war. iron triangle -  An alliance of groups with an interest in a policy area: bureaucrats from the relevant agency, legislators from appropriate committees, and interest groups affected by the issue. isolationism -  The view that the United States should largely ignore the rest of the world. issue advertising -  Advertising, paid for by outside groups, that can criticize or praise a candidate but not explicitly say “vote for X” or “vote against X.” issue network -  A collection of actors who agree on a policy and work together to shape policy. Jim Crow laws -  Laws passed by southern states that imposed inequality and segregation on blacks. Joint Chiefs of Staff -  A group that helps the president make strategy decisions and evaluates the needs and capabilities of the military. judicial activism -  A judicial philosophy that argues courts must take an active positive role to remedy wrongs in the country. judicial implementation -  The process of enforcing a court’s ruling. judicial philosophy -  A set of ideas that shape how a judge or lawyer interprets the law and the Constitution. judicial restraint -  A judicial philosophy that believes the court’s responsibility is to interpret the law, not set policy. judicial review -  The power of the courts to declare laws and presidential actions unconstitutional. jurisdiction -  A court’s power to hear cases of a particular type. justiciable question -  A matter that the courts can review. just-war theory -  A theory of ethics that defines when war is morally permissible and what means of warfare are justified. Keynesian economics -  A demand-side economic policy, first presented by John Maynard Keynes after World War I, that encouraged deficit spending by governments during economic recessions in order to provide jobs and boost income. kitchen cabinet -  An informal name for the president’s closest advisers. Kyoto Protocol -  An international treaty aimed at reducing greenhouse gas emissions. laissez-faire capitalism -  The economic philosophy that the government should not interfere with the economy. lawmaking -  The power to make rules that are binding on all people in a society. layer-cake federalism -  A term used to describe federalism through most of the nineteenth century, in which the federal and state governments each had their own issue areas, that rarely overlapped; also known as dual federalism. legislative agenda -  A series of laws a person wishes to pass. legitimacy -  Acceptance by citizens of the government. Lemon test -  A three-part test to determine if the establishment clause has been violated; named for the 1971 case Lemon v. Kurtzman. libel -  Printing false statements that defame a person’s character. liberalism -  A theory of international relations that deemphasizes the importance of military power in favor of economic power, trade, and international institutions. libertarianism -  The belief that government should be small and most decisions left up to the individual. liberty -  The freedom to do what one chooses as long as one does not harm or limit the freedom of other people. limited government -  A government that places few restrictions on its citizens’ choices and actions, and in which the government is limited in what it can do. limited jurisdiction -  A court’s power to hear only certain kinds of cases. limited war -  A war fought primarily between professional armies to achieve specific political objectives without causing widespread destruction. line-item veto -  A special type of veto that the president can use to strike the specific parts of the bill he or she dislikes without rejecting the entire bill. line organization -  In the government bureaucracy, an agency whose head reports directly to the president. literacy test -  Historically, a test that must be passed before a person can vote; designed to prevent blacks from voting. lobbying -  Attempting to persuade government officials through direct contact via persuasion and the provision of material benefits; also known as the inside game. logrolling -  A practice in Congress where two or more members agree to support each other’s bills. loophole -  A part of a tax code that allows individuals or businesses to reduce their tax burden. loose constructionism -  A judicial philosophy that believes the Constitution should be interpreted in an open way, not limited to things explicitly stated. machine -  A very strong party organization that turns favors and patronage into votes. Madisonian Model -  A structure of government proposed by James Madison that avoided tyranny by separating power among different branches and building checks and balances into the Constitution. majority leader -  (1) In the House, the second-ranking member of the majority party; (2) in the Senate, the highest-ranking member of the majority party. majority opinion -  A court opinion that reflects the reasoning of the majority of justices. majority party -  In a legislative body, the party with more than half of the seats. majority rule -  The idea that the government should act in accordance with the will of the majority of people. malapportionment -  An apportionment of seats in Congress that is unfair due to population shifts. mandate -  When the federal government requires states to do certain things. mandatory retirement -  An employment policy that states that when an employee reaches a certain age, he or she must retire. marble-cake federalism -  A term used to describe federalism for most of the twentieth century (and into the twenty-first), where the federal government and the states work closely together and are intertwined; also known as cooperative federalism. markup -  When a Congressional committee revises a bill in session. material incentive -  The lure of a concrete benefit, usually money, that attracts people to join a group. McCain-Feingold bill -  The popular informal name for the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 2002; it is named after its sponsors, Republican John McCain and Democrat Russell Feingold. McCulloch v. Maryland  -  A Supreme Court case that granted the federal government extensive power to carry out its enumerated powers. means-testing -  Basing benefits from a policy on a person’s wealth so that poor people get more benefits than rich people. media -  Information and the organizations that distribute that information to the public. media consolidation -  The trend toward a few large corporations owning most of the media outlets in the country. merit system -  The practice of hiring and promoting people based on skill. Merit System Protection Board -  A board that investigates charges of wrongdoing in the federal civil service. midterm election -  A congressional election that does not coincide with a presidential election. military aid -  Assistance to other countries designed to strengthen the recipient’s military. military-industrial complex -  The alliance of defense contractors, the military, and some members of Congress that promotes a large defense budget in order to profit themselves. minority leader -  In both the House and Senate, the leader of the minority party. minority party -  In a legislative body, the party with fewer than half of the seats. Miranda v. Arizona  -  A 1966 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that police must inform suspects of their rights when arrested. mixed economy -  An economy that includes elements of the free market and central planning. monarchy -  A regime in which all power is held by a single person. monetary policy -  An economic policy that seeks to control the supply of money in the economy. monopolistic model -  A view of the bureaucracy that says bureaucracies have no incentive to reform or improve performance because they face no competition. Monroe Doctrine -  An American policy, set by President James Monroe in 1823, that claims America’s right to intervene in the affairs of Western Hemisphere nations. multiculturalism -  The idea that Americans should learn about and respect the many cultural heritages of the people of the United States. multilateralism -  The idea that nations should act together to solve problems. multinational corporation -  A business that operates in more than one country. multiple-member district -  A legislative district that sends more than one person to the legislature. multipolar system -  An international system with more than two major powers. nation -  A large group of people who are linked by a similar culture, language, and history. national convention -  A convention held by a political party every four years to nominate candidates for president and vice president and to ratify the party platform. national debt -  Money owed by a government. national interest -  Things that will benefit and protect a state. nationalism -  A belief in the goodness of one’s nation and a desire to help make the nation stronger and better. National Security Council -  A part of the White House Staff that advises the president on security policy. nation-building -  The task of creating a national identity through promotion of common culture, language, and history. nation-state -  A state that rules over a single nation. Nazism -  Political ideology from Germany that stressed the superiority of the German race, authoritarian rule by one party, military expansion, and a longing for a mythical past. necessary and proper clause -  A clause at the end of Article I, Section 8, of the U.S. Constitution that grants Congress the power to do whatever is necessary and proper to carry out its duties; also known as the elastic clause. necessary evil -  Something that is believed to be needed but is not good in and of itself; many Americans see government as a necessary evil. negotiated rule-making -  A federal rule-making process that includes those affected by the rules. neoconservatism -  A recent development in American conservatism that believes the power of the state should be used to promote conservative goals. New Deal coalition -  The supporters of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal; the coalition included labor unions, Catholics, southern whites, and African Americans; helped the Democrats dominate politics from the 1930s until the 1960s. new federalism -  An American movement, starting in the 1970s, to return power to state and local governments, thereby decreasing the amount of power held by the federal government. New Jersey Plan -  A plan at the constitutional convention that gave each state equal representation in the legislature. nihilism -  The belief that in order to remake society, one must first destroy the current society. Nineteenth Amendment -  Passed in 1920, it gave women the right to vote. No Child Left Behind Act -  A law passed in 2001 that expanded federal funding to schools but required increased testing and accountability. noneconomic group -  An interest group that works on noneconomic issues; also called a citizens’ group. nongovernmental actor -  A participant in the international arena that is not part of a government; such participants include nongovernmental organizations, multinational corporations, and international organizations. nongovernmental organization -  A political actor that is not affiliated with a particular government. Many NGOs are nonprofit institutions run by private citizens, such as the Red Cross, Doctors Without Borders, and the Catholic Church. Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty -  An international treaty, signed in 1968, that aims to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. objective reporting -  Reporting only the facts with no opinion or bias. office-block ballot -  A ballot that groups candidates by office: All candidates for an office are listed together; also called the Massachusetts ballot. Office of Personnel Management -  The central federal personnel office, created in 1978. oligarchy -  Rule by the wealthy few. ombudsperson -  A person who investigates complaints against government agencies or employees. open primary -  A primary in which a person can participate in any party’s primary as long as he or she participates in only one party’s primary. open rule -  A rule on a bill, issued by the House Rules Committee, allowing amendments during floor debate. opinion -  A document issued by a court explaining the reasons for its decision. opinion leader -  A person whose opinion can shape the opinions of many others. original intent -  A judicial philosophy that states that judges should seek to interpret the law and the constitution in line with the intent of the founders. original jurisdiction -  The authority to be the first court to hear a case. outside game -  A term used to describe grassroots activism and other means to influence elections and policymaking. overregulation -  An excess of regulation that hurts efficiency. oversight -  Congress’s power to make sure laws are being properly enforced. pack journalism -  The idea that journalists frequently copy and imitate each other rather than doing independent reporting. paradox of participation -  When many people vote because they wish to make a difference, but the actual chances of making a difference are infinitesimally small. pardon -  A release from punishment for criminal conviction; the president has the power to pardon. parliamentary democracy -  A regime in which the legislature chooses the executive branch. partisan journalism -  Journalism that advances the viewpoint of a political party. party activist -  A person who is deeply involved with a party; usually more ideologically extreme than an average party voter. party-centered politics -  Campaigns and politics that focus on party labels and platforms. party-column ballot -  A ballot that groups candidates by party; also called the Indiana ballot. party identification -  Feeling connected to a political party. party in government -  The role and function of parties in government, particularly in Congress. party in the electorate -  Party identification among voters. party organization -  The formal structure and leadership of a political party. party platform -  The collection of issue positions endorsed by a political party. party reform -  Measures aimed at opening up party leadership adopted by the major parties following the 1968 election. patronage -  Government jobs and contracts given out to political allies in exchange for support. Pendleton Act -  Another name for the Civil Service Reform Act of 1883. per curiam -  An unsigned decision issued by an appellate court; it reaffirms the lower court’s ruling. pigeonholing -  The ability of a committee to kill a bill by setting it aside and not acting on it. Plessy v. Ferguson  -  The Supreme Court case of 1896 that upheld a Louisiana law segregating passengers on trains; it created the separate but equal doctrine. pluralism -  The view that society contains numerous centers of power and many people participate in making decisions for society. plurality -  More votes than any other candidate but not a majority. plurality opinion -  An opinion written by the majority of justices on the winning side. pocket veto -  An unusual type of presidential veto: When the president neither signs nor vetoes a bill, after ten days the bill dies if Congress is not in session. political action committee -  An organization, usually allied with an interest group, that can donate money to political campaigns. political appointees -  Federal bureaucrats appointed by the president, often to reward loyalty. political culture -  The set of beliefs, values, shared myths, and notions of a good polity that a group of people hold. political economy -  The study of how politics and economics interact. political efficacy -  The belief that the government listens to normal people and that participation can make a difference in government. political equality -  Treating everyone the same way in the realm of politics. political participation -  Engaging in actions to achieve political goals. political party -  An alliance of like-minded people who work together to win elections and control of the government. political science -  The systematic, rigorous study of politics. political socialization -  The process by which political culture is passed on to the young. politics -  The process by which government decisions are made. polling -  Assessing public opinion by asking people what they think and feel. pollster -  A person who conducts polls. poll tax -  A fee for voting, designed to keep blacks and other poor people from voting. popular sovereignty -  A regime in which the government must respond to the wishes of the people. Populists -  A political movement in the late nineteenth century that fought on behalf of the poor workers and farmers; fused with the Democratic Party in 1896. pork -  Money spent by Congress for local projects that are not strictly necessary and are designed to funnel money into a district. poverty line -  The federal standard for poverty: Anyone below a certain income level is considered poor. power -  The ability to get others to do what you want. power of the purse -  The ability of Congress to spend money; all federal expenditures must be authorized by Congress. precedent -  A court ruling bearing on subsequent court cases. preemption -  The practice of the national government overriding state and local laws in the name of the national interest. Presidential Commission -  A body that advises the president on some problem, making recommendations; some are temporary, whereas others are permanent. presidential democracy -  A regime in which the president and the legislators must be entirely separate. president pro tempore -  In the vice president’s absence, the presiding officer of the Senate. primary election -  An election within a party to choose the party’s nominee for the office. print media -  Media distributed via printed materials. prior restraint -  Stopping free expression before it happens. private bill -  A bill that offers benefit or relief to a single person, named in the bill. private good -  A good that benefits only some people, such as members of a group. privatization -  The practice of private companies providing government services. privileges and immunities clause -  Part of the Fourteenth Amendment, which forbids state governments from taking away any of the privileges and immunities of American citizenship. probability sample -  A sampling technique in which each member of the population has a known chance of being chosen for the sample. professional legislature -  A state legislature that meets in session for long periods, pays its members well, and hires large support staffs for legislators. progressive taxes -  A taxation system in which the rich must pay a higher percentage of their income than the poor. prohibited powers -  The powers specifically denied to the national government by the Constitution. project grants -  Categorical grant programs in which states submit proposals for projects to the federal government and the national government chooses which to fund on a competitive basis. proportional representation -  An electoral system in which each party gets a number of seats in the legislature proportionate to its percentage of the vote. prospective voting -  Making a vote choice by looking to the future: Voters choose the candidate(s) they believe will help the country the most in the next few years.
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Flag On the Wallaby 2,874,739 Contributions Passionate about all things Australian Answered In Education What is civics class? Civics is the study of the rights and responsibilities of being a  citizen. It is a social science, specifically an area of political  science, and is often called "Civics a … nd Citizenship". It deals  with both the theory and the practice of the duties of citizenship. (MORE) What would you like to do?

Flag Answered In Literature & Language Definition of civic building? as simple as the answer may appear civic buildings are building that are used not for residential purposes but for commercilal purposes. This may include hotels, banks, ware h … ouses, hospitals, worship centres, schools etc... (MORE) What would you like to do?

Flag Blobbert 37,033 Contributions Answered In Literature & Language What is the definition of civic sacrifice? Civic sacrifice refers to a sacrifice made by an individual on behalf of a community. Edit Share to: Was this answer useful? Yes Somewhat No Thanks for the feedback! What would you like to do?

Flag Answered In Literature & Language What is the definition for civic disposition? habits or character of citizens that are conductive or helpful to the healthy functionig and common good of ademocratic system Edit Share to: What would you like to do?

Flag Answered In Literature & Language What is the definition of civic sense? civic sense is nothing but the environmental protection and reducing the bad habits in our self like spitting on roads,smoking in public place etc....., by RAZAKATH KHAN Edit Share to: What would you like to do?

Flag Snowball6286 29 Contributions Answered In Literature & Language What is a good definition for civic virtue? It means, The democratic ideas, practices, and values that are at the heart of civilization in a free society. Edit Share to: Was this answer useful? Yes Somewhat No Thanks for the feedback! Kathleen Hughes Supervisor

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I am a perpetual student who strives to learn more everyday to improve my teaching skills. As a special education teacher, becoming creative to help a student learn a skill often requires unusual techniques. Currently I am in the last 6 months of my Masters degree in Creative Writing with… ( MORE ) VIEW BIO HIDE BIO Categories you should follow Cars & Vehicles Follow Shopping Follow Log in or Sign Up to follow categories . Answer these How do you collect social security? In: Social Security Answer it! What needs to be studied in order to fully understand history? In: Geography Answer it! What are some two digit numbers? In: Math and Arithmetic Answer it! What two countries share the longest border separating them? In: Borders and Boundaries Answer it! What would you like to do?

Flag Answers Publisher 49,340 Contributions Answered In Literature & Language What is the definition of the term civic virtue? Civic Virtue refers to the cultivation of habits of personal living that are important for the success of the overall community. What traits that make up civic virtue has been … and still is a hot topic in political philosophy. (MORE) What would you like to do?

Flag Answers Publisher 49,340 Contributions Answered In Literature & Language What is the definition of Civic Hatch? A Civic is the model of the car and hatch is the type of car. A hatchback is just that the rear window and door open as one unit or as separate units. Edit Share to: Was this answer useful? Yes Somewhat No Thanks for the feedback! next Categories History Politics and Government Society and Civilization Home New questions Recent site activity Random question Promoted questions Community forums Advanced Search Top contributors Q&A categories © 2017 Answers About Contact Us Help Center Careers Terms of Use Privacy Policy Consumer Choice IP Issues Disclaimer Directory

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